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My thanks to the Oriental Institute for allowing me to be there as a visiting scholar so that much of this project could be completed.
d transliteration of Egyptian words, for example, hwt , Acknowledgments Work on this book began in 1991 at the instigation of Kennie Lyman, and many friends and colleagues were helpful in its undertaking. Edwards, with whom I had the great privilege to engage in a correspondence that was both educational and enjoyable.
I would first like to thank all contributors who wrote their entries in a timely manner, and those who cheerfully volunteered to write several entries, especially Manfred Bietak, Ed Brovarski, Karl Butzer, Rosalie David, Rodolfo Fattovich, Abdel Monem Gomaa, Zahi Hawass, Christian Holzl, Timothy Kendall, Leonard and Barbara Lesko, Peter Der Manuelian, Bill Peck, Friederike Kampp Seyfried, Steve Sidebotham, Stephen Thompson, Rob Wenke, Bruce Williams, Frank Yurco, and the late I. This volume could not have been finished without the editing assistance of Steven Blake Shubert, who, although he came in on the project at a late date, worked with much dedication and a good eye for details. A number of professors and former graduate students in the Department of Near Eastern Studies, University of Toronto, where I studied Egyptian archaeology, were supportive and pleased to contribute to this volume.
Steven's cheerfulness and reliability are greatly appreciated. Richard Fazzini and Donald Redford graciously served as project advisors and also suggested the names of possible contributors.
No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. From the Tomb of Two Brothers, Rifa, 12th Dynasty 81 Panel portrait of a man, originally placed over the mummy's 658 face, showing the clothing and hairstyle fashionable during the Graeco-Roman period.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data Encyclopedia of the archaeology of ancient Egypt/edited by Kathryn A. From Hawara 82 Map of Naga ed-Deir sites, circa 1900 666 83 Petrie's Predynastic sites in the Nagada region 671 84 Stages in the manufacture of a Predynastic bifacial knife 684 85 Predynastic stone tools 685 86 Lower Paleolithic handax (from Bir Tarfawi, Western Desert) 723 87 Middle Paleolithic flake-tools (a, c, e) and Levallois flakes (b, 724 d, f-h) (from Bir Tarfawi, Western Desert) 88 Upper Paleolithic blade-tools and and flake-tools (from a site 726 near Edfu) 89 Late Paleolithic bladelet-tools (from a site near Esna) 727 90 Late Paleolithic ostrich eggshell, ground stone and bone tools 728 (from Wadi Kubbaniya) 91 Sites of the Persian period in Egypt 740 92 Subterranean chambers showing wall paintings and engaged 824 statuary, tomb of Queen Meresankh III at Giza (G 7530-7540) 93 Decorated class pot with scenes of boats, ostriches and the 831 "Nagada plant" 94 Map of the Eastern Desert with principal routes and emporia, 835 on both the Nile and the Red Sea 95 Wall reliefs in the tomb of General Horemheb in the New 850 Kingdom necropolis at Saqqara 96 The tomb of Iniuia in the New Kingdom cemetery, Saqqara 851 97 1st and 2nd Dynasty tombs at North Saqqara 856 98 Model of Zoser's Step Pyramid complex at Saqqara 860 99 Cross-section of Zoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqara, showing the 863 different stages of construction 100 Map of the sacred animal necropolis, Saqqara 870 101 Plan of Serapeum Saqqara 873 102 Map of the monuments and inscriptions at Serabit el-Khadim, 882 Sinai 103 Relief of a ship from a pyramid temple of Sahure, 5th Dynasty 891 104 North Sinai, granary at New Kingdom site BEA-10 898 105 Location of Siwa Oasis and the Qattara Depression in the 901 Western Desert 106 Archaeological plan of the area from Aghurmi to Ubayda 903 107 Relief in the Umm 'Ubaydah temple, Siwa Oasis: processions 904 of gods and King Wenamen wearing the Libyan chief's ostrich feather headdress and kneeling in front of the shrine of Amen 108 An 18th Dynasty representation of the stone vessel drilling and 915 boring tool 109 Tell el-Amarna, general plan and city limits 932 110 Tell el-Amarna, plan of the central city zone 933 111 Tell el-Amarna, Stela N 935 112 Tell el-Amarna, restored plan of the Great Temple sanctuary 936 113 Tell el-Amarna, plan of the house of Hatiay, Overseer of the 938 King's Works 114 Sketch of the three successive fortresses at Tell el-Herr (1988) 957 115 Royal funerary temples in West Thebes 998 116 A, Medinet Habu, 18th Dynasty temple; B, Funerary temple of 1001 Tuthmose II 117 Funerary temple of Hatshepsut 1002 118 Funerary temple of Tuthmose III 1002 119 Funerary temple of Seti I 1003 120 Funerary temple of Ramesses II 1003 121 Funerary temple of Ramesses III 1004 122 Thebes, el-Tarif, potsherds from the Tarifian layer, sixth 1012 millennium BC 123 Plan of Tomb KV5, Valley of the Kings, Thebes 1019 124 Thebes, the Valley of the Queens, plan of tombs in the main 1022 wadi 125 Predynastic and Early Dynastic cemeteries in the Ma'adi-Tura 1043 region 126 Plan of the tomb of Tutankhamen 1047 127 Remains of the Sadd el-Kafara dam in the Wadi Garawi in 1059 1982 (view from upstream) 128 Upstream face of the northern wall (right bank of the wadi) 1061 129 Location of recorded scripts at Wadi Maghara, Sinai 1073 Map of Egypt showing sites described in this work 1 Abu Gurab 2 Abu Roash 3 Abu Sha'ar 4 Abusir 5 Abydos 6 el-Ada'ima 7 Akhmim 8 Antinoopolis 9 Apis 10 Armant 11 Asyut 12 el-Badari 13 Balabish 14 Behbeit el-Hagara 15 Beni Hasan 16 Berenike 17 Berenike Panchrysos 18 Bir Umm Fawakhir 19 Busiris 20 Buto 21 Dahshur 22 Dakhla 23 Deir el-Ballas 24 Deir el-Bersha 25 Dendera 26 Dorginarti 27 Edfu 28 Farafra part of region 29 Farafra part of region 30 Fayum 31 Gebel Barkal 32 Gebel el-Haridi 33 Gebel el-Silsila 34 Gebel Zeit 35 Gebelein 36 Gurob 37 Hatnub 38 Hawara 39 Helwan 40 Heracleopolis 41 Hierakonpolis 42 Hu/Hiw 43 Kafr Tarkhan 44 Kerma 45 Kharga Oasis 46 Kom Abu Bello 47 Kom el-Hisn 48 Kom Ombo 49 el-Kurru 50 Lahun 51 el-Lisht 52 Mama 53 Mazghuna 54 Meir 55 Mendes 56 Meydum 57 Mons Porphyrites 58 Naga ed-Deir 59 Nagada 60 Naukratis 61 Nuri 62 el-Omari 63 Oxyrhynchus 64 Philae 65 Qantir/Pi-Ramesses 66 Qasr Ibrim 67 Qau el-Kebir (Antaeopolis) 68 Quft 69Qus 70 Quseir el-Qadim 71 Sanam 72 Saqqara 73 Seila 74 Serabit el-Khadim 75 Sikait-Zubara 76 Siwa Oasis 77 Tanis 78 Taposiris Magna 79 Tell el-Amarna 80 Tell Basta 81 Tell ed-Dab'a 82 Tell el-Farkha 83 Tell el-Herr 84 Tell el-Mashkuta 85 Tell el-Muqdam 86 Tell el-Yahudiya 87 Thebes, Qurnet Murai 88 Thebes, Sheikh Abd el-Qurna 89 Thmuis 90 Tod 91 Tukh el-Qaramus 92 Tuna el-Gebel 93 Tura 94 Wadi el-Hudi 95 Wadi Garawi 96 Wadi Gasus 97 Wadi Hammamat 98 Wadi Abu Had 99 Wadi Maghara 100 Wadi Kubbaniya 101 Wadi Tumilat 102 Zawiyet el-Aryan 103 Baharia e*™*^ ,h Mopoki .:-ufii) J f' ■■ HJanafc GLUD j CAIRO ^ V - 5phri Map of Cairo showing sites described in this work ■ -^ Luxor Map of Thebes showing sites described in this work How to use this Encyclopedia Structure The Encyclopedia opens with a map of the region and a chronology which provides a context for the material which follows.